What Should I Do?

Shutterstock: Country Pond

Pond Planning

Steps for constructing a pond
Tuesday, July 22, 2014, 11:47 AM

There is a lot to consider when planning for your pond installation. It is a good idea to thoroughly plan you pond installation prior to the machines arriving. I personally like to measure, get the levels, and paint the site to see for myself what the pond will look like. Often times a design on paper doesn’t survive this process. You will often find that the pond will be different in real life than you were thinking it would be on paper.

I had planned on (3) pond sites based on my design, however after surveying with my laser level, I have decided that (2) of them are not worth doing. In permaculture, there are only (4) pond types we should consider, and topography will determine their viability.

A saddle dam is very rare, but there are some sites where this would be viable. This works where you have (2) hill tops relatively close to each other so it creates almost a valley. A dam wall is installed at either end of the valley, and swales provide the catchment. I certainly do not have a saddle dam site.

A ridge dam or pond is installed on the flat area of a ridge before the slope drops off. These are fed with swales, and can be great for irrigation. I don’t have any ridge dam sites.

A valley dam is the most common type of pond that we install. It is typically the cheapest type of pond. A valley dam only requires the dam wall on one side, making it very economical. Unfortunately, no valley dams on my site either.

A contour dam can be installed on areas with less than an 8% slope. These ponds are set on contour, and because they are relatively flat, there are no large walls to install. I have one site on my property that I can install a contour dam or pond, and even it is not ideal. However, I think it is really important to have open water on my design site, that I am willing to spend extra time and money to develop the site. Open water is going to dramatically increase the diversity of my site!

Drain Pipe to Increase Catchment

For a surface runoff pond, ideally you have at least 15 times the catchment as the size of the pond. For example, if you had 15 acres of land that would eventually drain into your pond, you could theoretically have a 1 acre pond. Now this is a very crude way of looking at it, as you have to take rainfall and shade as well. For example, if you have a shady pond site and you receive 70 inches of rain a year, you may not need as much catchment, but if you are in a dry environment without shade, your pond would dry up with that catchment.

Swale Connected to Drain Pipe

I have a 1700 square foot pond planned, with about 90,000 square feet of catchment. I have about 53 times the size of my pond in catchment. I have trees surrounding three sides, but they are still small on the north and south side, so it will take a while to get much shade. I do plan on planting some bamboo on the dam wall, which is on the south side, so this will shade the pond rather quickly. I will be installing drain pipe along the back of my house, where water collects, and moving this water around the corner, before emptying out into a dry river bed of stones, and then into the pond. This will help to add oxygen to the water before it enters the pond which will be important for the fish. I also have (2) swales that will feed the pond. It is really important that my pond does not dry out, because I am using sodium bentonite to seal it. Sodium bentonite will expand 15X when wet, but it will also shrink when dry, so if my pond dries up, it will leak.

Drain Pipe Empties to Dry River Bed

After I figured out where my catchment was coming from, I painted out where the drain pipe would go. Then I found the contour line with my laser level to establish the pond edge of my dam wall. I then figured out how high would be practical for my dam wall. This height determines my shore line, by simply finding that level up slope. This upslope contour line ends up being my shore line. My pond site is a bit complicated in that it is a contour dam, but it has half of a valley dam. The west side of my pond site has the same level as my shore line, so that contour line just had to be extended around. This expands my pond without having to build a dam wall on the west side.

Shoreline of Pond

My dam wall is on the south side and the east side, while the north and west side is the shore line. It is important that the top of the dam wall is at least 6 feet wide for stability. Also, the slope on the interior of the dam wall must be no steeper than 3 to 1, and outside of the dam wall should be no steeper than 2 to 1. The key way which is a compacted clay core, for me it will be my soil mixed with sodium bentonite, should be at least 3 feet wide, and it should go below the deepest part of your dam wall to prevent under the surface erosion. This is extremely important. A keyway must always be installed on a dam wall.

Dam Wall East Side of Pond

It is very important to plan overflows and spillways. Without these, you will have water spilling over your dam wall causing erosion, and eventually failure of the dam. I am planning a standup pipe that will be a double sleeve overflow pipe. This will keep the water level constant, but it will also pull stale water from the bottom of the pond. This will help to oxygenate the pond. I will also have an emergency spillway in the event of a large storm. The emergency spillway will exit on the east side of the pond near the shore line if the pond gets 6 inches over the freeboard. It is important for a pond that you have at least 1 foot of freeboard, which is the wall space above the water level. Larger ponds may need more freeboard.

Emergency Spillway

Once your pond is complete, it is important to vegetate your dam walls quickly to prevent erosion. I am planning to plant clover and bamboo. I recently spoke with an engineer that specializes in ponds, and he was not too keen on bamboo. He thought that might be a problem. Geoff Lawton on the other hand uses bamboo often. The engineer said grass was proper. I’m not sure if he realized that bamboo is a grass, and it is shallow rooted. The roots are very fibrous, and it actually stabilizes dam walls.

Pond Planned Out

~ Phil Williams

Phil Williams is a permaculture consultant and designer and creator of the website foodproduction101.com.  His website provides useful, timely information for the experienced or beginning gardener, landscaper, or permaculturalist. Phil's personal goals are to build soil, restore and regenerate degraded landscapes, grow and raise an abundance of healthy food of great variety, design and install resilient permaculture gardens in the most efficient manner possible, and teach others along the way.

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14 Comments

Wildlife Tracker's picture
Wildlife Tracker
Status: Gold Member (Offline)
Joined: Jan 14 2012
Posts: 403
If by bamboo, you mean...

Knotweed. Don't plant it!  It may stabilize banks, but it won't stabilize your mental health!

http://www.newsweek.com/japanese-knotweed-driving-men-murder-257257

ommm's picture
ommm
Status: Bronze Member (Offline)
Joined: Jul 8 2014
Posts: 30
#1 thing to do

Contact your state and federal environmental regulatory agencies.  Failure to do so could result in big, BIG problems.

http://www.naturalnews.com/036615_Oregon_rainwater_permaculture.html

http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2014/03/14/wyoming-welder-faces-fine-for...

http://activerain.trulia.com/blogsview/3508297/digging-a-pond-in-pennsyl...

I can't find the reference online but there was a rather affluent man locally who built a number of ponds on his property for the aesthetics and for wildlife.  It greatly improved the beauty of his property and attracted an abundance of wildlife.  However, he wound up facing enormous fines and forfeiture of his property and had to flee the country to retain his wealth.  The authorities went after him with a vengeance. 

Make sure you dot all your 'i's and cross all your 't's with the proper bureaucracies.

 

Oliveoilguy's picture
Oliveoilguy
Status: Platinum Member (Offline)
Joined: Jun 29 2012
Posts: 578
Water is precious

Water is precious here in Texas and we spend a lot of our resources trying to divert and capture what little rain we have. Thanks for the thought provoking article. The photos really tell the story. Can't wait to see how the pond develops. 

Carl's picture
Carl
Status: Member (Online)
Joined: Jul 17 2008
Posts: 23
Pond Chemistry

Thanks for the article, Phil. I am looking forward to the rest in the series to see how it turns out.

I hope you address water quality. One can find ponds that are masses of foul smelling algae and other aquatic growth, and other ponds that are clear and clean. What steps must be taken to create the latter?

 

robie robinson's picture
robie robinson
Status: Diamond Member (Offline)
Joined: Aug 25 2009
Posts: 1191
infamous letter on note

in regards to eastern NA pond builders:

http://www.lettersofnote.com/2012/07/regarding-your-dam-complaint.html

 

 

Wildlife Tracker's picture
Wildlife Tracker
Status: Gold Member (Offline)
Joined: Jan 14 2012
Posts: 403
Awesome letter Robie

I swear the EPA might be the most incompetent branch of our government. Reminds me of some local cases in my area

Cheers to this quote!

In my humble opinion, the Spring Pond Beavers have a right to build their dam unauthorized dams as long as the sky is blue, the grass is green and water flows downstream. They have more dam right than I to live and enjoy Spring Pond. 

Oliveoilguy's picture
Oliveoilguy
Status: Platinum Member (Offline)
Joined: Jun 29 2012
Posts: 578
Thanks Robie
robie robinson wrote:

in regards to eastern NA pond builders:

http://www.lettersofnote.com/2012/07/regarding-your-dam-complaint.html

 

 

Great Perspective.

Wendy S. Delmater's picture
Wendy S. Delmater
Status: Diamond Member (Offline)
Joined: Dec 13 2009
Posts: 1988
This was fascinating

This was fascinating! There are so many ponds in my area - no one has a basement since the water table is so high. We have a natural pond behind our home in the woods, and about 8 that I know of within a mile. Most of them that are not natural are ridge dams because of the rolling small hills of the area. But on many cases they just use a loader to removed the soil and the pond fills up on its own.

I got to see the bones of one of these dams when a tree was brought down on a spillway and drained the pond. You could see the slope of the wall on the two downslope ridges and the pipe for removing excess water at base.

One thing I wanted to ask about was things like waterlilies and duckweed: are there plants you would not want in your pond? Also, what plants would you recommend at the waterline? We have a lot of wild rice in the area and are considering seeding a shallow pond.

Phil Williams's picture
Phil Williams
Status: Gold Member (Offline)
Joined: Oct 14 2009
Posts: 345
Knotweed

Wildlife tracker,

Japanese knotweed does look like bamboo but it is not closely related. So no worries about bamboo. I personally like using bamboo A LOT. It is an extremely multifunctional plant, providing building materials, edible shoots, and quick screening and windbreaks. The key is to understand the management, and to put it in a place that makes sense.

Phil

Phil Williams's picture
Phil Williams
Status: Gold Member (Offline)
Joined: Oct 14 2009
Posts: 345
Permitting

Ommm,

I sent an article about permitting for the pond as well, but it has not been published yet. I agree, permitting is extremely important, but if you are not damning an existing creek or waterway the process is not too bad. The fines mount when you start messing with existing waterways and wetlands. I only needed a permit from the county conservation district that basically said what I was doing with the soil to control erosion. It cost $300. I fell outside the requirement for the Army Corps of Engineers and the DEP. Stay tuned for the permitting article to come.

Phil

 

Phil Williams's picture
Phil Williams
Status: Gold Member (Offline)
Joined: Oct 14 2009
Posts: 345
The Pond

Olive Oil Guy & Carl,

The below video shows the pond. I set the video about 6 minutes in where I start to show the pond. You can see the entire construction on my youtube channel permaculturepa.

In regard to water quality, it really depends on how you look at it. There are different plants, animals, microorganisms, insects etc.. that thrive in a high oxygen environment (clear water) or a low oxygen environment (stagnant water). This pond is for fish so it has to be high oxygen. It helps if you have some shade which I have only a little, but the bamboo will change that quickly. It is fairly deep and large which helps. Also, I have a lot of water circulating through the pond. A drain pipe empties into it, and my rainwater overflow and geothermal dumps into it as well. For further air, I have an aerator that runs as well. I am digging another pond soon that will be for frogs/ wildlife that will be much more stagnant. 

Phil

Wildlife Tracker's picture
Wildlife Tracker
Status: Gold Member (Offline)
Joined: Jan 14 2012
Posts: 403
Around here

When people refer to bamboo it's usually a reference to knotweed. I've never seen anybody successfully plant a stand of bamboo so that's really neat.

And knotweed shoots can be eaten as well in the spring (rhubard-like). My single attempt at using it for construction was not so good. Knot very sturdy ;)

Phil Williams's picture
Phil Williams
Status: Gold Member (Offline)
Joined: Oct 14 2009
Posts: 345
aquatic plants

Wendy,

The idea of seeding an existing pond is I believe a good one. Ponds are so productive, so if you could seed some things in that you could use, I bet you get a really nice yield, with little work.

There are what are considered invasive pond plants, that you are supposed to avoid, but I can't imagine that some of the invasive plants won't show up on there own.

Generally with aquatic plants, you're talking about emergent, submersed, and floating plants. Emergents are usually edge plants.

From my research, some not recommended plants would be: phragmites, naiad, milfoil, curleyleaf pondweed, cabomba.

Some emergent plants at the waterline to consider might be: arrowhead, pickerelweed, spike rush, sweet flag, cranberry, high bush blue berry, high bush cranberry, taro (Cold Intolerant), water canna, yellow iris.

Phil 

 

 

Oliveoilguy's picture
Oliveoilguy
Status: Platinum Member (Offline)
Joined: Jun 29 2012
Posts: 578
Relining a Pond

We just recently lined a pond that was here when we bought the property, but never held water. We thought about Bentonite but found some "caliche" that had a high clay content. It came off an excavation for a new house. We spread what we had (about 30 yards)  4 inches thick and it is holding water for the first time. Caliche is a pre-limestone powder that is found in deposits here and there in our region of the world. 

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