In his work on consciousness, Koch collaborates with a researcher named Giulio Tononi. Tononi is the father of the most popular modern theory of consciousness, called Integrated Information Theory (IIT), which Koch once called “the only really promising fundamental theory of consciousness.”
Tononi’s theory states that consciousness appears in physical systems that contain many different and highly interconnected pieces of information. Based on that hypothesis, consciousness can be measured as a theoretical quantity, which the researchers call phi.
How Russia Targets the U.S. Military (jdargis)
While the military and its contractors have long been the targets of cyberattacks from hostile foreign powers, the Russian campaign is noteworthy for its heightened intensity, especially since the imposition of Western economic sanctions following the 2014 annexation of Crimea, and for the novel tactics it is employing online. All of it amounts to a new kind of low-intensity or “hybrid” warfare that Western governments are still struggling to effectively counter.
Things will change for Republicans when we convince Trump supporters to be thankful for where we are and hopeful for the future. As it is, we’ve been mimicking Trump’s resentments. We’ve embodied his fear of the future, looking back with him and them to some good old days that never existed. Those Trump supporters comprise perhaps 38 percent of the American people. They’ve been captured by his message of grievance. They are the dominant force in Republican primaries. They are the reason that Senator Rubio, for example, adopted a minimizing, dismissing and excusing mode in his questioning of Comey. That 38 percent prevents Republicans from pursuing a range of things — from cooperating with a full-bore investigation of Russia’s attack on our election, to crafting workable solutions on health care, to working on free-enterprise solutions to climate change.
The Thinking Person’s Retirement Choice (Tiffany D.)
All else being equal, if you need more money now and/or expect taxes to remain the same or fall in the future, you’d go the traditional route. If you can spare the extra tax now and/or expect tax rates to rise in the future, you’d choose Roth. That’s because if you expect future taxes to be higher, it makes sense to pay them now when they’re low.
This summer, public outrage erupted over price-gouging for EpiPens, the go-to treatment for severe allergic reactions. Between 2009 and 2016, the price per dose for an EpiPen, produced by pharmaceutical company Mylan, increased from $100 to $600, while the cost, per dose, of the actual drug inside, epinephrine, cost only about $1.
In the European Union, Jean-Claude Juncker has quietly diverted 145 million Euros earmarked for environmental and climate protection to subsidise high-end defence technologies.
As is often the case with the Trump administration, there have been mixed signals from Washington. President Trump has strongly supported the isolation of Qatar over its alleged funding of terrorism, ignoring the fact that although the relationship is complicated, Qatar is an ally of the U.S. in many ways. Not only does the U.S. have a large military base in Qatar, Qatar is also home to the U.S.’ regional Central Command headquarters. The location is critical to the U.S.’ campaign to fight ISIS, among other security objectives. Moreover, the Pentagon just signed off on a $12 billion weapons deal to Qatar last week. Shortly after Trump’s public comments, the Pentagon felt the need to issue a statement thanking Qatar for hosting 10,000 U.S. troops.
Climate change poses huge risks for aviation, according to a 2016 report from the International Civil Aviation Organization, a UN agency based in Montreal. Reduced aircraft performance is just one impact from higher temperatures, according to the agency, which also cited heat damage to airport surfaces, increased heating and cooling requirements, greater pressure on local utilities, and greater noise generation due to aircraft performance issues.
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