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The order sparked jubilation among African Americans in Texas and resulted in generations of celebration. It rings poignant today, as in recent weeks outpourings of anger against police brutality and racism have filled America’s streets.
It is a modest, two-paragraph entry in the book labeled “Headquarters District of Texas, Galveston … General Orders No. 3.” But it affected the lives of about 250,000 enslaved people.
Juneteenth commemorates the June 19, 1865 arrival of Union troops in Galveston, Texas—over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation—who brought with them official news of the end of slavery in the United States. Long a day of celebration of Black life and family in America, Juneteenth should become a national holiday not so the whole country can indulge in box-store deals or culturally empty binge-drinking but rather to center the history of African Americans. For too long this country has told an incomplete story of itself, basking in Abraham Lincoln’s high words while ignoring the systemic injustices upon which white America has prospered, and which have yet to be redressed.
“Juneteenth is a deeply emotional moment for enslaved people,” says historian Karlos K. Hill, of the University of Oklahoma.
In Texas and across the country, emancipated African Americans began celebrating annually, with parades, concerts, and picnics. “Being able to go wherever they want and being able to wander about; for enslaved people, it was an expression of their freedom,” says Hill. “Formerly enslaved people celebrating, in public, their newfound freedom, was an act of resistance.”
“We had spaced out the tables and chairs to try our meter or two-meter social distancing, but they showed no respect for that. We wondered if they thought they had herd immunity,” Chris Lewis, managing partner of Moat House owner Lewis Partnership, told the Express & Star newspaper.
Lewis said the herd wandered over from a nearby farm.
More Than A Meal (jdargis)
When we lost restaurants this spring — when their doors closed and many of their workers were sent home — we didn’t just lose places to be fed. We lost a theater of experience. Here, several renowned writers recount some of their most memorable meals out.
Unfortunately, as Steven Mintz, the author of “Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood,” told me, “The pandemic has exaggerated and intensified the worst features of children’s play today: adult intrusion; the decline of physical, outdoor and social play; and mediation by screens.” Ow.
So, how do we adults ameliorate that while staying safe, employed and reasonably sane? Here are some ideas.
The researchers watched as wild broad-tailed hummingbirds came to visit, recording which feeder they flew up to first. After a set number of visits, the feeder positions would be switched so the birds couldn’t simply return to the same spot once they found the sweet stuff. The idea was that they would use the color of the light to identify the feeder on return visits. They couldn’t track individual birds separately, but based on some banding, they estimated the local population at 200 to 300 (depending on the year). In total, they recorded over 6,000 hummingbird visits.
The next day, he rose early and set off in the direction he had been traveling, certain to meet his comrades. But somewhere in that thick timber, he lost his way again—and made a serious mistake. He dismounted his horse and left it with the reins trailing while he walked ahead to scout a route over a particularly tough section. Something spooked his horse and it took off, “at full speed among the trees. That was the last I ever saw of him.” On the horse were Everts’s supplies, blankets, guns, everything. He had only the clothes on his back, a couple of knives and a small opera glass.
Gold & Silver
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